Accommodating language learners in university lectures
A couple of years ago I listened to a keynote speech delivered by Dr. David Mendelsohn (York University, Toronto), which caused me to remark his name, not because the content was particularly thrilling, but because he was a local. A few years after that, during research for an MA paper, his name crossed my path again through his research regarding how non-native speaking (NNS) students were coping with listening comprehension in their undergraduate lectures in his article, “The Lecture Buddy Project: An Experiment in EAP Listening Comprehension” (2002:64-73). Because of this potent challenge my EAP students face, when Nathan Hall started ELT Research Blog Carnival on listening, Mendelsohn’s project sprang to mind to comment on and so I thought I’d contribute.
It’s news to no one that learners coming into an undergraduate program at many English-speaking universities struggle immensely with getting anything from the content of their lectures, particularly toward the beginning of the course, but Mendelsohn set up the Lecture Buddy Project to gauge this struggle and determine if having a ‘helper’ would expedite improvement. In this project, he paired 2 native English-speaking (NS) students from the same Economics courses with 6 NNS students each (from China, Hong Kong, Ukraine, Russia and Israel) for a semester. Students and buddies attended lectures together and met afterwards to discuss content and any problems the students had during lecture. They both reported their thoughts on why comprehension was an issue. Read about them in his article here.
Mendelsohn concludes his article with ways to alleviate these struggles. Among them, a noteworthy suggestion is that “professors should be urged to provide lecture outlines, to speak slower in the first few lectures, to make more use of the blackboard to write down key concepts and words…, and consciously to repeat the main points… .” (71) Wouldn’t this be ideal, but I don’t see it happening outside of content courses that are uniquely tied to an EAP program. Even if it did, three questions arise, at least for me:
- Is it realistic to suggest accommodations of any sort are even possible?
One could argue to professors who lecture to an increasing population of NNS students that if they implement these strategies, they would see greater success course-wide, greater attendance throughout the semester and greater student feedback. One could argue that international student fees generate a lot of money for the university, their courses and their salaries, but tenure and unions prevent any real threat to job security. One could, but then one would need access to the professors. Some of us do, some of us don’t. Unfortunately too, many first-year courses tend to be of the ‘weeder’ variety, hovering over those academically-equal participants, searching for weaknesses of any sort, springing upon opportunities to cut the slack before they move on to upper years. That’s their design, so even with access to a sympathetic professor, it may be perfunctory. But perhaps I’m not giving them enough credit. <ba dap bap, tshhh>
- Where is the line between accommodating NNS students and maintaining the authenticity of a full-credit course?
University credit courses have credits for a reason: they are rigorous enough for students to deserve that credit for learning and applying content. Long has there been a debate over the credit-worthiness of EAP programs themselves in that they are supportive towards content courses; they themselves have no content to master. In a similar fashion, one side of the coin suggests that if lecturers make these accommodations for the NNS students, they are in fact, decreasing this rigour. I beg to differ by suggesting there is a difference between accommodation and dumbing down. This leads me to the third question:
- Are these suggestions accommodations for NNS students or are they actually guidelines for better teaching in general?
At the University of Toronto, the credit course my EAP students take is a first-year History course, taught by a university professor who is employed through our department. The consultations we have with her about her lectures are not about simplifying the material or reducing the rigour of the course. They involve vocabulary she uses, organisational cues during the lecture, the types of visual aids or outlines available to students, and the comprehension checks possible, all of which are the province of effective teaching, not accommodation, or so I argue. None are absolute or prescriptive. The pace of the lectures, the readings involved and the strategies for coping with these are unaffected by these consultations.
Mendelsohn, D. (2002) “The Lecture Buddy Project: An Experiment in EAP Listening Comprehension“, TESL Canada Journal 20/1, 64-73.
Douglas, S. (2012). “A Short Rationale for Credit Bearing English for Academic Purposes (EAP) Courses“, BCTEAL Spring 2012 Newsletter, 9-13.
My posts on the topics